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Timeline of the Emergence of States in Europe

Middle of the fifth millenium BCE: ostentatious demonstration of social distinctions.
Beginning of the second millenium BCE: first European States in Crete (Minoans) and then in continental Greece (Mycenaeans), organised on a model borrowed from earlier counterparts in the Near East.
Towards 1200 BCE: disintegration.
8th century BCE: reappearance of States in Europe (Greece, Italy, Spain).
From the 8th to 6th century BCE: spread of Greek colonies (city-states) all along the shores of the Mediterranean.
From the 5th to 3rd century BCE: emergence of States in the Mediterranean basin, due in large part to the Greek colonial influence and the bio-climatic advantages.
2nd century BCE: emergence of States in the humid temperate zone (Celts), before Roman influence took hold and after the development of intensive agricultural production methods adapted to local conditions.


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Contact

Patrice Brun
Senior scientist at the CNRS
Archéologies et sciences de l'Antiquité
CNRS-Universités Paris I et X
E-mail: brun@mae.u-paris10.fr

Jean-Paul Demoule
Professor at universities
Archéologies et sciences de l'Antiquité
CNRS-Universités Paris I et X
E-mail: jpdemoule@wanadoo.fr

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